Performing MRI of animals typically requires anesthesia. However, anesthesia is known to modulate a wide variety of important metabolic and functional processes, and as such represents potential limitations in study design.
Here we investigated renal functional and metabolic consequences of three typical rodent anesthetics of sevoflurane, inactin and a mixture of fentanyl, fluanisone and midazolam (FFM), with hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate MRI and DCE imaging. FFM increased renal lactate/pyruvate ratio and blood lactate concentration. Inactin and sevoflurane had reasonable renal metabolism and function. The results indicate inactin and sevoflurane are preferable when renal metabolism and function are the consideration of research.