Renal steatosis is a potential biomarker for obesity-related renal disease and this has been suggested as underlying biological pathway of renoprotective effects of Liraglutide in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) has the ability to non-invasively quantify triglycerides. We examined the reproducibility of ¹H-MRS in healthy volunteers, and explored the application in a clinical trial evaluating the differences in renal triglyceride content after 9-month treatment with liraglutide. We demonstrated that ¹H-MRS is a reproducible technique and comparison with healthy volunteers suggests increased renal triglycerides in T2DM. Renoprotective effects of liraglutide might be based on reduced renal triglycerides.