Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) can specifically estimate the microstructure of neurites. Brain development characteristics were evaluated using NODDI in common marmosets. The study included six common marmosets (age, 5–30 months). In NODDI, the value of both dispersion and density increased. Additionally, the trend of increase varied from region to region. This pattern has previously been observed in human studies. Thus, NODDI can be a good approach to evaluate brain development in the common marmoset, and eventually a suitable parameter to study brain developmental disorders for diagnosis and treatment.