Dramatic development of brain connectome takes place during the 3rd trimester, mediated by transcriptome. Transcriptome is complete set of gene-expressed mRNAs and is heterogeneous across brain regions and dynamic throughout development. The transcriptomic basis of structural connectome in this critical developmental stage is unknown. In this study, we identified transcription genes most significantly correlated to nodal efficiency and degree centrality of macroscale structural connectome based on diffusion MRI of 77 preterm brains and over 60,000 quantified transcriptomes. These identified transcription genes such as MYRF regulating oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination may shed light into the transcriptomic basis of structural connectome development.