Christina Andica1, Akifumi Hagiwara1,2, Shimpei Kato1,3, Kazumasa Yokoyama4, Shohei Fujita1,3, Takuya Haruyama1,5, Koji Kamagata1, Masaaki Hori1,6, Nobutaka Hattori4, and Shigeki Aoki1
1Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 4Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 5Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan, 6Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) shares similar clinical and imaging characteristics with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), but a correct diagnosis is essential as treatment options differ considerably. We applied diffusion tensor imaging, neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, and synthetic quantitative MRI to assess the gray matter (GM) of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and NMOSD patients. Our results demonstrated that multimodal neuroimaging techniques of the GM might be useful for differentiating NMOSD from RRMS, where NMOSD spares most of the GM. In contrast, RRMS group demonstrated extensive demyelination, circumscribed axonal loss predominantly in the limbic areas, and broad neuroinflammation in the cerebellum.