Arteriolar sclerosis and small vessel atherosclerosis are two age-related neuropathologies that are common in older adults and have been linked to cognitive decline and dementia. Definitive diagnosis of either pathology is only possible at autopsy. In this work, a novel MRI-based classifier was developed for predicting the presence of arteriolar sclerosis or small vessel atherosclerosis in-vivo. The classifier was first developed based on ex-vivo MRI and pathology data from a large community-based cohort of older adults and was then translated in-vivo. The performance of the classifier was assessed both ex-vivo and in-vivo.