We detected early developmental differences of white matter tracts in preterm infants with brain injury (BI). Nineteen preterm infants underwent two MRI scans. Microstructural development was analyzed combining conventional diffusion parameters and advanced NODDI parameters . We found BI preterm infants showed higher ODI in internal capsule, which was positively correlated with brain injuries severity; during the longitudinal period, most of the tracts in non-injured preterm infants had increased FA and Vic, decreased MD and ODI, while in BI preterm infants, only a few tracts developed. This study indicated white matter development was different in preterm infants with and without BI.