Identifying diffusion model biomarkers for inflammation in human traumatic spinal cord injury
Sarah Rosemary Morris1,2,3, Taylor Swift-LaPointe2, Andrew Yung1,3,4, Valentin Prevost1,3,4, Shana George1, Andrew Bauman4, Piotr Kozlowski1,2,3,4, Farah Samadi1,5, Caron Fournier1,5, Lisa Parker6, Kevin Dong1, Femke Streijger1, Veronica Hirsch-Reinshagen1,5,6, G.R. Wayne Wayne Moore1,5,6, Brian K Kwon1,7, and Cornelia Laule1,2,3,5
1International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD), Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 4Faculty of Medicine, UBC MRI Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 5Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 6Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 7Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
We investigated the relationship between diffusion model biomarkers and inflammatory cells, as measured by HLA-DR and CD68 histological staining for activated microglia and macrophages, after human traumatic spinal cord injury. Fractional anisotropy decreases and radial and mean diffusivity increases were strongly correlated with the presence of activated microglia and macrophages. ActiveAx-derived intra-cellular volume fraction and axon density decreased while axon diameter increased. Fiber fraction from Diffusion Basis Spectrum Imaging decreased and while hindered fraction increased in the presence of inflammation.
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