Towards standardising quantification in 23Na-MRI by synthetic polyacrylamide gel phantoms
Samuel Rot1,2, Aaron Oliver-Taylor3, Xavier Golay3,4, Bhavana Solanky1, and Claudia AM Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott1,5,6
1NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Gold Standard Phantoms, London, United Kingdom, 4Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 5Department of Brain & Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy, 6Brain Connectivity Centre Research Department, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy
Accuracy in quantitative 23Na (sodium) MRI is impacted by the quality of the signal calibration phantom. Agarose phantoms, the current benchmark, exhibit various unfavourable qualities. To move towards standardisation in 23Na-MRI, the objective was to develop a synthetic, polymer-based calibration phantom for traceable, reliable and accurate quantification in 23Na-MRI. Crosslinked polyacrylamide gel (PAG) was selected as the most suitable choice, for its bi-exponential 23Na T2 decay. Here, we present the T1, T2 properties and 23Na-MRI data of prototype PAG phantoms at different 23Na concentrations. PAG emerges as a reliable choice to replace the ubiquitous agarose gel phantom.
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