Pulse-width modulation for simultaneous concomitant field compensation and diffusion weighting in double diffusion encoding
Julian Rauch1,2, Frederik B. Laun3, Dominik Ludwig1, Maxim Zaitsev4,5, Mark E. Ladd1,2,6, Peter Bachert1,2, and Tristan A. Kuder1
1Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany, 3Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany, 4Medical Physics, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 5High Field Magnetic Resonance Center, Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 6Faculty of Medicine, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
Intravoxel dephasing caused by Maxwell or concomitant fields can lead to image artifacts as signal voids or falsify the quantitation. In this study, a framework for compensation of concomitant field effects for double diffusion encoding sequences with single pairs of bipolar gradients on each axis is presented. Using pulse-width modulated oscillating gradients with an optimized timing of the oscillating lobes allows for simultaneous diffusion weighting and compensation of the self-squared terms of the concomitant fields as well as for the cross terms. Simulations with realistic parameters reveal the possibility of a signal gain with the proposed method without significant drawbacks.
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