Simulations were used to evaluate the effect of rapid vascular flow on spatial spectral pulses used for hyperpolarized MRI. Simulation results show that flow effects reduced the on-resonance excitation angle while increasing the off-resonance excitation in a velocity dependent manner. These excitation impacts will be particularly important when trying to estimate an arterial input function. Flow may also produce measurable lactate signal in flowing pyruvate, an effect that was observed in a hyperpolarized study of the thyroid.
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