Longitudinal decrement of cerebral blood flow in high-impact sports
Mahta Karimpoor1, Moss Zhao1, Brian Mills1, Marios Georgiadis1, Dean Tran1, Maged Goubran2, Nicole Mouchawar1, Sohrab Sami3, Max Wintermark1, Gerald Grant4, David Camarillo5, Greg Zaharchuk1, and Michael Zeineh1
1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Stanford Center for Clinical Research, Stanford, CA, United States, 4Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 5Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States
Longitudinal changes (over four years) of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI were investigated in a population of high-contact sport football college athletes and were compared to low-contact cohort of volleyball athletes. A linear-mixed-effects model was applied to assess CBF (normalized to the cerebellum) by sport (football vs. volleyball), time from baseline MRI, and the interaction between sport and time. Longitudinal analysis showed a prospective decline in perfusion in football compared to volleyball. Fourteen football players experienced an in-study concussion; in contrast to the longitudinal findings, football players exhibited acutely a mild increase in occipital lobe CBF.
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