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Abstract #2697

Analysis on Echo Placement for Multi-echo Proton Resonance Frequency Shift Thermometry

Sven Nouwens1, Kemal Sumser2, Maarten Paulides2,3, Bram de Jager1, and Maurice Heemels1
1Mechanical Engineering, Control Systems Technology, Technical University Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 2Radiotherapy, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 3Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetics for Care & Cure, Technical University Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands


Proton resonance frequency shift based MR thermometry is widely used to non-invasively monitor thermal therapies in vivo. Multi-echo gradient-echo sequences are being studied to increase the effective temperature to noise ratio, however, choosing the optimal echo-times is non-trivial. We developed an optimization framework based on measurement noise models to compute the optimal echo placement for schemes that either correct or do not correct for the conductivity bias. In a 4-echo phantom experiment, we demonstrated a reduction in the noise standard deviation of 22% when comparing optimal to equidistant echo placements.

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