Molecular imaging of breast cancer by chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI of glucosamine: first human experience
Michal Rivlin1, Debbie Anaby2,3, Noam Nissan2,3, Moritz Zaiss4, Anagha Deshmane5, Miri Sklair-Levy3,6, and Gil Navon1
1School of Chemistry, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 2Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel, 3The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 4Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinic Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany, 5Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, 6Meirav High Risk Clinic, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel
In preclinical experiments in implanted breast cancer tumors in mice, glucosamine (GlcN) exhibited enhanced chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI signals. Moving toward clinical application, considering the excellent safety profile of GlcN, we examined the feasibility of using the GlcN CEST method to detect human breast cancer on a 3T clinical scanner. Here we report significant CEST MRI signals resulting from the exchangeable protons of GlcN hydroxyls, amine/amide residues as well as nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE). Thus, CEST MRI using GlcN has the potential to detect tumors and report their activity, without the use of a gadolinium contrast agent.
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