Separation of Intra- and Extra-cellular Sodium Using A Rotation of Spiral Disc (RSD) Sequence with Multiple Echoes
Kwan-Jin Jung1, Hsin-Yu Fang2, Kenneth Wilund2, and Brad Sutton3
1Biomedical Imaging Center, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA, IL, United States, 2Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA, IL, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA, IL, United States
An efficient sequence to acquire sodium image, i.e., rotation of the spiral disc, was developed last year. This sequence is further developed to separate the sodium signal into intra- and extra-cellular sodium by collecting multiple echoes and bi-exponential curve fitting. This method is confirmed on agarose phantom for T2* mapping and on human lower-leg muscle with an isometric plantar flexion exercise for separation of intra- and extra-cellular sodium. In the calf muscle experiment, it was found that the intracellular sodium was increased more than the extra-cellular sodium. This method finally allows studying separately the intra- and extra-cellular sodium in muscles.
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