A Review and Comparison of Unwrapping Methods in Dual Velocity-Encoding MRI
Pamela Franco1,2,3, Liliana Ma4,5, Susanne Schnell6, Michael Markl4,5, Cristobal Bertoglio7, and Sergio Uribe1,2,8
1Biomedical Imaging Center, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 2Millennium Nucleus for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Santiago, Chile, 3Electrical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 5Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 6Institut für Physik, Universität Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, 7Bernoulli Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands, 8Radiology Department, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
4D flow MRI data may be inaccurate due to phase wrapping when using lower VENC than the maximum actual velocity. Accuracy can also be affected by reduced velocity-to-noise ratio (VNR) when using a too high VENC. Dual-VENC approaches have been proposed to unwrap velocity-aliasing artifacts and increase VNR, providing more reliable measurements and allowing more flexibility in the selection of VENC. Dual-VENC methods enable acquisitions of 4D flow MRI data with high dynamic range and without velocity aliasing. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of some of these methods.
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