Omkar B. Ijare1, Tedros Bezabeh1, Nils Albiin2, Annika Bergquist2, Urban Arnelo2, Matthias Lhr2, Alexey Shiryaev3, B. S. Somashekar4, G.A. Nagana Gowda4, V.K. Kapoor5, C.L. Khetrapal4, Ian C.P. Smith1
1National Research Council Institute for Biodiagnostics, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 2Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Norwegian PSC Research Center, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; 4Centre of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow, India; 5Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
Pancreaticobiliary (PB) reflux has been considered to be a potential risk factor for the carcinogenesis of bile ducts and gallbladder (GB). Previous ex vivo studies tested the suitability of MRS for the detection of PB reflux through the analysis of bile. In this study, we analyzed bile samples from patients with cholangiocarcinoma (n = 3) and GB cancer (n = 7) to determine if any of these patients possess regurgitation. We observed this phenomenon in 1/3 cholangiocarcinoma and 5/7 GB cancer patients, supporting the fact that PB reflux is a risk factor for the carcinogenesis of bile ducts and GB.