To specify the critical structural alterations of cognitive deterioration in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and explored the underlying mechanism of structural changes. We combined cross-sectional and longitudinal VBM analyses to explore the structural topologies between PD patient who convert to mild cognitive impairment (PD converter). The relationships between dopamine transporter (DAT), CSF proteins and structural alterations were assessed. PD converters showed progressive temporal atrophy associated with multiple cognitive domains. DAT results were significantly associated with temporal atrophy. In conclusion, temporal lobe is a crucial node in modulating cognitive status in multi-domains. Dopamine deficiency may contribute to cognition-related temporal atrophy.