Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Lymphangiography of the Upper Limbs in Breast Cancer Related Lymphoedema: An Exploratory Study.
Marco Borri 1 , Maria A. Schmidt 2 , Kristiana D. Gordon 2,3 , Julie Hughes 2 , Erica D. Scurr 2 , Dow-Mu Koh 2 , Peter S. Mortimer 2,3 , and Martin O. Leach 2
CR-UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre,
Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden, Sutton,
Surrey, United Kingdom,
and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Institute of Cancer
Research and Royal Marsden, Surrey, United Kingdom,
of Medicine, St George's University of London, London,
Breast cancer-related lymphoedema remains one of the
most common and distressing morbidities in breast cancer
survivors treated with surgery. In this work we have
extended the use of Contrast-Enhanced MR
Lymphangiography to upper limbs and produced high
resolution MR images of lymphatic vessels at 1.5T. We
propose a new quantitative protocol, which employs an
intradermal injection with lower concentration of
contrast agent and prevents T2*-related signal loss,
allowing correct modelling of contrast agent uptake and
minimizing venous enhancement. This protocol appears
suitable for quantitative studies, and enables both
structural and functional evaluation of the lymphatic
system within the same examination.
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