Hybrid frequency encoding/water relaxation method for detecting exchangeable solute protons with increased sensitivity and specificity
Nirbhay N Yadav 1,2 , Jiadi Xu 1,2 , Xiang Xu 1,2 , Michael T McMahon 1,2 , and Peter C M van Zijl 1,2
Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, MD, United States,
Kirby Research Center, Kennedy Krieger Institute,
Baltimore, MD, United States
Measurement of chemical exchange is important for
characterizing many biological processes. Current
methods for detecting exchange in spectroscopy are
classified based on whether exchange is slow,
intermediate, or fast on the NMR time scale. Here we
demonstrate a pulse sequence with solute proton
frequency encoding and water detection that has the
ability to distinguish exchange contributions over a
large range of exchange rates (slow-intermediate-fast).
When exchange is slow-intermediate, solute protons are
labeled and detected with enhanced sensitivity. At
higher exchange rates, changes in the water line shape
are detected. This principle is demonstrated for the
metabolites creatine, myo-inositol, and glutamate.
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