Separation of VLF fluctuations from periodic cardiorespiratory noise with critically sampled magnetic resonance encephalography.
Vesa Kiviniemi 1 , Xindi Wang 2 , Vesa Korhonen 1 , Tuija Keinnen 3 , Yu-Feng Zang 4 , Pierre LeVan 5 , and Shella Keilholz 6
Diagnostic Radiology, MRC, Oulu University
Hospital, Oulu, Oulu, Finland,
Normal University, Beijing, China,
Neurophysiology, MRC, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu,
Normal University, Hangzhou, China,
of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany,
University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
We imaged whole brain with magnetic resonance
encpehalography using a 100 ms TR under-sampled k-space
trajectory. This critical sampling enabled separation of
cardiac pulse and respiratory effects from very low
frequency BOLD signal sources. We show that
physiological noise has a unique spatiotemporal patterns
of noise propagation pattern throughout the brain. The
results suggest that conventional averaged external
estimates of physiological noise need to be replaced by
critically sampled brain data.
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