Molecular Mechanism of Transverse Relaxation in Whole Blood with Plasma Contrast Reagent: Simulations of Bulk Magnetic Susceptibility and Water Exchange
Gregory J Wilson1, Charles S Springer2, Sarah Bastawrous1,3, and Jeffrey H Maki1
1University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 3Puget Sound VA HCS, Seattle, WA, United States
Previously reported T2* values in oxygenated whole blood with
gadolinium based contrast reagents are very small. This has important
implications for optimization of contrast-enhanced MR angiography and
quantification of arterial input functions. To investigate the molecular
mechanism of these short T2* values, we have performed Monte Carlo
simulations of signal dephasing that predict the reported values remarkably
well. Intracellular water signal experiences a frequency shift that is
dependent on the orientation of the RBC in the magnetic field. The resulting
frequency distribution in combination with trans-membrane water exchange
results in rapid dephasing of water signal.
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