Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However evidence of renal damage is not detected until the advanced disease stages, using current clinical diagnostic tools. The goal of this study was to investigate renal hemodynamic changes in diabetic patients using ASL and evaluate whether the technique is sensitive enough to detect renal dysfunction early in the disease course, which could have relevant clinical and therapeutic implications. The results demonstrated detection of hemodynamic changes in kidney microvasculature in diabetic patients. Moreover, ASL was able to detect small changes in kidney perfusion across different stages of CKD in the diabetic population.