The feasibility and suitability of using compressed sensing to accelerate the acquisition of 3D lung ventilation images with hyperpolarized 129Xe and to enable same-breath anatomical 1H imaging was investigated. Fully sampled and prospective data were acquired from one healthy smoker. Retrospective simulations showed a good agreement between fully sampled and reconstructed images using different error metrics. The method was further validated by comparing quantitative imaging metrics; percentage ventilated volume, distribution of signal intensity and maps of coefficient of variation in prospectively acquired data. The results indicate that the method can be implemented for clinical evaluation in patients with lung diseases.