Recent studies have challenged the two-streams division of primate visual cortex into a ventral object identity stream (‘what’) and a dorsal object location stream (‘where’). We collected fMRI data while human participants performed a selective attention task. We used a multivariate discriminant method to separately decode the currently attended location and object category. We found a distinction between early visual regions coding the attended location and ventral/dorsal stream regions coding the attended category. Our study reveals a large-scale functional organization for spatial- and category-based attention in visual cortex, but its principal axis is posterior-anterior rather than dorsal-ventral.