To maximize motor recovery of the upper-limb post-stroke, rehabilitation should be adapted to the individual patient. This requires the identification of motor recovery markers in relation to corresponding brain activations. During elbow flexion/extension, kinematic analysis was confronted with corresponding fMRI activations, comparing 21 participants post-stroke with 13 controls. This provided insight into the underlying functioning and organisation of motor control, switching between ‘automatic’ feed-forward and ‘conscious’ feedback control. Post-stroke, the latter strategy was applied with an additional role for visualisation and the contralesional hemisphere, whereby different kinematic profiles were related to different brain activations, opening doors to personalized rehabilitation.