Previous studies used memory retrieval-extinction procedure to successfully reduce the drug self-administration behavior in rats and heroin patients. The method was rarely used in smoking cessation. This study used resting-state fMRI to evaluate the effect of memory retrieval-extinction procedure on heavy smokers. We found that lower default mode network activity and higher reward system activation in smokers who finished the memory retrieval-extinction procedure. It may reflect a nonpharmacological method induced the smoking-related emotions but reduced smoking memory retrieval. In conclusion, our results could give a new perspective on clinical treatment for smoking cessation.