End-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually requires maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation. However, whether maintenance of hemodialysis improves cerebral oxygen levels in patients with ESRD is unclear. This study aim to explore the changes in blood oxygen content in the venules of patients with ESRD who maintained hemodialysis were evaluated by measuring the phase value (Δφ) of deep venous magnetic susceptibility (SWI) in the deep brain. We found that the cerebral venous oxygen level in patients with hemodialysis ESRD was higher than that in the healthy control group. Maintaining hemodialysis may improve cerebral blood oxygen levels in ESRD patients.