There is growing interest in fMRI neurofeedback (fMRI-nf) to facilitate therapeutic reorganization of brain function. However, the mechanisms underlying self-regulation processes are incompletely understood. Here we interrogate the mechanisms of fMRI-nf using an experimental protocol designed to increase lateralized motor activity. Twelve right-handed healthy adults were assigned into age- and sex-matched active and sham study arms. Each participant received active or sham feedback during one scanning session. We constructed group-averaged activation maps and lateralization index. During neurofeedback, active and sham groups demonstrated different brain activation. We did not observe any long-lasting functional reorganization and improvement in lateralization index.