Filter-exchange spectroscopy and imaging sensitively detect necrotic cell death in vitro and in vivo
Athanasia Kaika1, Geoffrey J. Topping1, Simone Ballke2, Thomas Theodor Metzler2, Irina Heid3, Mathias Schillmaier1, Rickmer Braren3, and Franz Schilling1
1Department of Nuclear Medicine, TUM School of Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 2Institute of Pathology, TUM School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 3Institute of Radiology, TUM School of Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Filter-exchange spectroscopy (FEXSY) and imaging (FEXI) are sensitive to transmembrane water exchange, which is commonly altered during cell death1. Yeast cells in different permeabilization stages were studied with FEXI, DWI and CFDA-AM/ propidium iodide (PI) staining using flow cytometry. Cell populations with 3.8% PI positive staining had 44% increased AXR, but unchanged ADC. At 33% nonvital cells, detection of AXR became unreliable and ADC increased. In vivo FEXI and DWI in EL4 lymphoma, with H&E-confirmed necrotic tumor cells and edema, showed AXR and ADC variations across the tumor, possibly due to differing vitality cell stages.
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