The effect of echo train length and TE range on multi-echo quantitative susceptibility mapping.
Antonio Ricciardi1, Anita Karsa2, Carmen Tur1,3, Alberto Calvi1, Sara Collorone1, Francesco Grussu1,4, Marco Battiston1, Rebecca S Samson1, Marios Yannakas1, Jon Stutters1, Baris Kanber1,5, Ferran Prados1,5,6, Karin Shmueli2, and Claudia AM Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott1,7,8
1NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia (Cemcat), Vall d’Hebron Institute of Research, Vall d’Hebron Hospital Campus, Barcelona, Spain, 4Radiomics Group, Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology, Vall d’Hebron Hospital Campus, Barcelona, Spain, 5Centre for Medical Image Computing (CMIC), Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 6Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain, 7Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy, 8Brain Connectivity Centre, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) from multi-echo acquisitions provides more accurate results than single echo, but the optimal choice of echo train length and echo time (TE) range requires investigation. In this work, we showed that QSM values depend on the TE range sampled, so QSM data computed over different TE ranges should not be mixed. Dropping later echoes might help resolve echo-to-echo phase inconsistency artifacts, at the expense of QSM accuracy. Finally, in multi-centre studies using data acquired with different TE settings, covering the same total TE range is preferable to simply matching the number of echoes.
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