Despite studies that have demonstrated population differences due to differences in genetics, culture, and environmental exposures, a comparison of brain structural development between oriental and occidental neonates remains to be fully examined. We compared 108 neonates from ITPNBDI and 170 neonates from dHCP to examine differences in neonatal brain structure. Results demonstrated ITPNBDI neonates held shorter brain length, wider brain width and higher brain height than dHCP neonates. They also had greater total brain volume, greater grey matter and less white matter than dHCP neonates. Specifically, volumes of some brain regions involved in speech perception were different between two datasets.