Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic growth (PTG) might develop after a major trauma, but their neurological bases are largely unknown. Here, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging acquired prepandemic to explore the neuroanatomical correlates in 115 college students. The PTSS and PTG scores were collected during the epidemic. We found that PTSS was positively associated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the medial prefrontal cortex, and PTG was negatively correlated with the GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our research revealed the neural underpinnings of post-traumatic consequences in healthy students, suggesting PTSS and PTG are two distinct psychological changes.